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He3Pak Specifications...


Helium-3 (3He) is an stable isotope of helium that is increasingly being used in a number of areas such as fundamental physics, space technology, nuclear fusion and cryogenic engineering, especially in milli-Kelvin refrigeration technologies. The critical and normal boiling temperatures of 3He are 3.3157 K and 3.1968 K, respectively. 3He transists into superfluid phase below 0.0026 K. He3Pak was developed on the basis of (a) a saturation pressure equation valid from 2.6 mK to the critical point 3.3157 K, (b) a saturation density equation valid from 2.6 mK to the critical point 3.3157 K, (c) melting pressure and density equations valid from 2.6 mK to 35 K, and (d) a Debye fluid state equation using Helmholtz potential function valid for temperature from 2.6 mK to 1500 K, and pressure up to 20 MPa. (e) equations for thermal conductivity and viscosity valid for temperature from 2.6 mK to 500 K and pressure up to 20 MPa. (f) Surface tension equation from 3 mK to 3.3157 K. All these equations have been published on peer-reviewed journals. He3Pak covers the liquid-vapor equilibrium line, the liquid-solid equilibrium line and the compressed liquid, real gas and critical regions. The uncertainly for calculations of p-ρ-T, specific heat and sound velocity, etc are general within 1%.

He3Pak was initially created by Dr. Yonghua HUANG and Prof. Guobang CHEN as version 1.0 in 2005 in Zhejiang University, with technical help from Dr. Vincent Arp, Cryodata Inc. He3Pak was maintained by Dr. Yonghua HUANG after he graduated and moved to Shanghai Jiao Tong University. The version was updated to v1.2 in 2007 and to v2.0 in 2009. The code of v2.0 for the graphical user interface was completely re-written in Microsoft Visual Basic .NET. The new version improves many functions such as unit conversion, data output and print. It also provides more features like data plotting. Bugs found by the developer and from user report was fixed in the kernel Fortran computation codes.

For reference to the He3Pak program in publications, please use the following:

1. Huang Y. H., Chen G. B., Arp V. D. Debye equation of state for fluid helium-3. J. Chem. Phys., 2006, 125(5):054505.

2. Huang, Y.H., Chen, G.B., Arp, V.D., Helium-3 Thermophysical Properties Program - He3Pak, Version 2.0, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2009 (available from Horizon Technologies, Littleton, CO, USA, http://www.htess.com.)



He3Pak works via a friendly graphical front panel with on-line help document and pdf user's manual. It provides both a Metric and English unit systems. He3Pak is able to calculate thermophysical properties of 3He over a wide range of temperatures from 2.6 mK (the default lower limit value is set as 0.01 K) to 1500 K and pressures up to 20 MPa.

Available properties: temperature, pressure, density, specific volume, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, compressibility factor, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, latent heat, 2nd virial coefficient, 3rd virial coefficient, isochoric specific heat, isobaric specific heat,  sound velocity, isothermal compressibility, volume expansivity, isentropic expansion coefficient, adiabatic compressibility, Joule-Thomson coefficient, dp/dρ, dp/dT, dρ/dT, dB/dT, Gruneisen parameter, thermal conductivity, viscosity, surface tension, etc.

He3Pak distributes as an standard installation package, which includes:

(1) a stand-alone executable.

(2) a static library file (He3EOS.lib) created by Fortran compiler. This file contains all the functions/subroutines called by He3Pak (the user interface). He3EOS.dll could be incorporated into any Fortran (should also work for C/C++) code project.

(3) a standard Windows Dynamically Linked Library file (He3EOS.dll), which provides the interfaces to all those functions/subroutines. This file could be used for Excel VBA programming or other language programming.

(4) a COM dll (He3EOSCOM.dll). When this COM component server is registered, the helium-3 property functions could be called by codes in C/C++, C#, VB, VBA, Fortran...

System requirement for He3Pak 2.0:

  • Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP, Windows 2000, 98SE operating system.
  • Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0
  • Intel Pentium 266MHz or above.
  • 128 MB memory.
  • At least 50MB free hard disk space.
  • Keyboard and Mouse.

He3Pak 2.0 has not been tested on Windows 95 or Windows NT 4.0 systems.


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